The blood glucose level must be maintain with in the narrow limits of 70 to 100mg/dl.
Level above the normal range are teemed as hyperglycemic and bellow are followed hypoglycemic.
After the ingestion of carbohydrate meal. It may rise 120-140mg/dl.
Factors affecting blood glucose balance:
- Strong of glucose- by glycogenic
- Supply of glucose- by gluconeogenesis, by glycogenolysis.
- Use of glucose- by glycolysis and by pentose phosphate pathway.
- Conversion of glucose to fat- Lipogenesis.
Other factors involved in maintaining blood glucose level are-
- Metabolic process
- Renal mechanism
Maintainance or Glucose in fed state:
(Hyper Glycemic Condition):
Normally there is an increased blood glucose level shortly after each meal. Increased level of circulating glucose realize insulin by β cells of Islets of Langerhans. This hormone reduces the blood glucose level by number of base.
- In the liver insulin increase the use of glucose by glycolysis by inducing the synthesis of glycolytics enzyme. Such as glucokinase, phospofructokinase and pyurvatekinase.
- Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by suppressing the action of key enzyme. Such as pyurvate carboxylase , glucose-6 phosphate.
- In the muscles and liver insulin stimulates glycogenesis by stimulating glycogen synthase.
Maintainance of blood glucose in fasting stable (Hypoglycemic condition):
Glucagone: glucagone is the hormone produced by α-cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas glucagon opposes the action of insulin and act mainly in the liver.
Glucagon acts in several base such as-
- In the liver it stimulates glycogenolysis by activating enzyme phophorylase and inlimits glycogen synthesis.
- Glucagon enhance (increases) gluconneogenesis from amino acid and lactate.
- Epinephrine or Adrenaline- Secreted by adrenal medulla.
- Famous glycogenolysis.